YARN Architecture and Components

We have discussed a high level view of YARN Architecture in my post on Understanding Hadoop 2.x Architecture but YARN it self is a wider subject to understand. Keeping that in mind, we’ll about discuss YARN Architecture, it’s components and advantages in this post.

In Hadoop 1.x Architecture JobTracker daemon was carrying the responsibility of Job scheduling and Monitoring as well as was managing resource across the cluster. And TaskTracker daemon was executing map reduce tasks on the slave nodes. YARN has divided the responsibilities of JobTracker to two processes ResourceManager and ApplicationMaster and instead of TaskTracker is using NodeManager daemon for map reduce task execution.

Now lets understand the roles ans responsibilities of each and every YARN components.

YARN has total three major components

  • ResourceManager
  • NodeManager
  • ApplicationMaster

1) ResourceManager

  • This daemon process resides on the Master Node (not necessarily on NameNode of Hadoop)
  • Responsible for,
    • Managing resources scheduling for different compute applications in an optimum way
    • Coordinating with two process on master node, Scheduler and ApplicationManager


  • This daemon process resides on the Master Node (runs along with ResourceManager daemon )
  • Responsible for,
    • Scheduling the job execution as per submission request received by ResourceManager
    • Allocating resources to applications submitted to the cluster
    • Coordinating with ApplicationManager daemon and keeping track of resources of running applications


  • This daemon process resides on the Master Node (runs along with ResourceManager daemon )
  • Responsible for,
    • Helping Scheduler daemon to keeps track of running application by coordination
    • Accepting job submissions from client
    • Negotiating first container for executing application specific task with suitable ApplicationMaster on slave node

2) NodeManager

  • This daemon process resides on the slave nodes (runs along with DataNode daemon)
  • Responsible for,
    • Managing and executing containers
    • Monitoring resource usage (i.e. usage of memory, cpu, network etc..) and reporting it back to ResourceManager daemon
    • Periodically sending heart-bits to ResourceManager for its health status update

3) ApplicationMaster

  • This daemon process runs on the slave node (along with the NodeManager daemon)
  • It is per application specific library works with NodeManager to execute the task
  • The instance of this daemon is per application, which means in case of multiple jobs submitted on cluster, it may have more than one instances of ApplicationMaster on slave nodes
  • Responsible for,
    • Negotiating suitable resource containers on slave node from ResourceManager
    • Working with one or multiple NodeManagers to monitor task execution on slave nodes

What is Container?

  • It is considered to be a small unit of resources (like cpu, memory, disk) belong to the SlaveNode
  • Scheduler process running along with ResourceManager daemon allocates the resources as a container
  • At the beginning of a job execution with YARN, container allows ApplicationMaster process to make a use of some resources on any slave node on the cluster
  • Then ApplicationMaster manages the application execution across other containers on slave nodes of a YARN cluster

Brief overview of YARN Architecture

You can see how above components are arranged in a typical YARN Cluster in following figure. Now let’s discuss about step by step Job Execution process in YARN Cluster.

YARN Architecture
YARN Architecture

Step 1:  Job/Application(which can be MapReduce, Java/Scala Application, DAG jobs like Apache Spark etc..) is submitted by the YARN client application to the ResourceManager daemon along with the command to start the ApplicationMaster on any container at NodeManager

Step 2:  ApplicationManager process on Master Node validates the job submission request and hand it over to Scheduler process for resource allocation

Step 3:  Scheduler process assigns a container for ApplicationMaster on one slave node

Step 4:  NodeManager daemon starts the ApplicationMaster service within one of its container using the command mentioned in Step 1, hence ApplicationMaster is considered to be the first container of any application

Step 5:  ApplicationMaster negotiates the other containers from ResourceManager by providing the details like location of data on slave nodes, required cpu, memory, cores etc..

Step 6:  ReourceManager allocates the best suitable resources on slave nodes and responds to ApplicationMaster with node details and other details

Step 7:  Then, ApplicationMaster send requests to NodeManagers on suggested slave nodes to start the containers

Step 8:  ApplicationMaster than manages the resources of requested containers while job execution and notifies the ResourceManager when execution is completed

Step 9:  NodeManagers periodically notify the ResourceManager with the current status of available resources on the node which information can be used by scheduler to schedule new application on the clusters

Step 10:  In case of any failure of slave node ResourceManager will try to allocate new container on other best suitable node so that ApplicationMaster can complete the process using new container

I hope now you can understand YARN better than before.

Thanks for reading and stay tuned for my upcoming posts…..!!!!!

Leave a Reply

Notify of